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Scientific References

Aarts, H., Dijksterhuis, A., & Midden, C. (1999). To plan or not to plan? Goal achievement or interrupting the performance of mundane behaviors. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 971–979

 

Ajzen, I., Czasch, C., & Flood, M. G. (2002). From intentions to behavior: Implementation intention, commitment, and conscientiousness. Manuscript under review

 

Armitage, C. J. (2004). Implementation intentions and eating a low‐fat diet: A randomized controlled trial. Health Psychology, 23, 319–323.

 

Bagozzi, R. P., Dholakia, U. M., & Basuroy, S. (2003). How effortful decisions get enacted:The motivating role of decision processes, desires, and anticipated emotions. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 16, 273–295.

 

Bamberg, S. (2000). The promotion of a new behavior by forming an implementation intention: Results of a field experiment in the domain of travel mode choice. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 573–587

 

Bamberg, S. (2002). Implementation intention versus monetary incentive comparing the effects of interventions to promote the purchase of organically produced food. Journal of Economic Psychology, 23, 573–587.

 

Bayer, U. C., Jaudas, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2002, July). Do implementation intentions facilitate switching between tasks?. Poster presented at the International Symposium on Executive Functions. Konstanz, Germany.

 

Bayer, U. C., Moskowitz, G. B., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2004). Implementation intentions and action initiation without conscious intent. Manuscript under review.Belloc, N. B. (1973). Relationship of physical health status and health status. Preventive Medicine, 2, 67–81.

 

Brandstatter, V., Heimbeck, D., Malzacher, J. T., & Frese, M. (2003). Goals need implementation intentions: The model of action phases tested in the applied setting of continuing education. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12, 37–59.

 

Brandstatter, V., Lengfelder, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2001). Implementation intentions and efficient action initiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 946–96.

 

Bruwer, J., Bayer, U. C., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2002). Intentional control of the Simon effect.Poster presented at the International Symposium on Executive Functions. Konstanz,Germany.

 

Bulgarella, C., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2003, February). Reflexive competition and its self‐regulation. Poster presented at the meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Los Angeles, CA

Chasteen, A. L., Park, D. C., & Schwarz, N. (2001). Implementation intentions and facilitation of prospective memory. Psychological Science, 12, 457–461.

 

Dewitte, S., Verguts, T., & Lens, W. (2003). Implementation intentions do not enhance all types of goals: The moderating role of goal difficulty. Current Psychology, 22, 73–89.

 

Dholakia, U. M., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2002). Mustering motivation to enact decisions: How decision process characteristics influence goal realization. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 15, 167–188.

 

Dholakia, U. M., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2003). As time goes by: How goal and implementation intentions influence enactment of short‐fuse behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 889–922.

 

DieVendorV, J. M., & Lord, R. G. (2003). The volitional and strategic effects of planning on task performance and goal commitment. Human Performance, 16, 365–387.

 

Einstein, G. O., McDaniel, M. A., Williford, C. L., Pagan, J. L., & Dismukes, R. K. (2003).Forgetting of intentions in demanding situations is rapid. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 9, 147–162.


Gillholm, R., Ettema, D., Selart, M., & Garling, T. (1999). The role of planning for intention‐behavior consistency. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 40, 241–250.

 

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bayer, U. C. (2000, October). Becoming a better person without changing the self. Paper presented at the Self and Identity Pre‐conference of the Annual Meeting of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. Atlanta, Georgia.

 

Gollwitzer, P. M., Bayer, U. C., Steller, B., & Bargh, J. A. (2004a). Delegating control to the environment: Perception, attention, and memory for pre‐selected behavioral cues. Manuscript under review.


Gollwitzer, P. M., & Brandstatter, V. (1997). Implementation intentions and effective goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 186–199.

 

Gollwitzer, P. M., Sheeran, P., & Seifert, E. (2004c). Intentions as symbols: How self‐completion affects the translation of intentions into action. Manuscript under review.

 

Gollwitzer, P. M., Sheeran, P., Tro¨tschel, R., & Webb, T. L. (2004d). The control of behavior priming effects by implementation intentions. Manuscript under review.

 

Gollwitzer, P. M., Tro¨tschel, R., Bayer, U. C., & Sumner, M. (2004e). Potential costs of self‐regulation by implementation intentions: Rebound and ego‐depletion effects? Manuscript under review.

 

Henderson, M. D., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2004). Using implementation intentions to disengage from a failing course of action: The effects of planning on escalation of commitment. Manuscript under review.

 

Holland, R., Aarts, H., & Langendam, D. (in press). Breaking and creating habits on theworkfloor: A field experiment on the power of implementation intentions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

 

Koestner, R., Downie, M., Horburg, E., & Hata, S. (2002a). Self‐construals and the pursuit of personal goals: The role of implementation intentions and self‐concordance. Manuscript in preparation. Quebec, Canada: McGill University.

 

Koestner, R., Lekes, N., Powers, T. A., & Chicoine, E. (2002b). Attaining personal goals: Self‐concordance plus implementation intentions equals success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 231–244.

 

Koole, S., & Van’t Spijker, M. (2000). Overcoming the planning fallacy through willpower: Effects of implementation intentions on actual and predicted task‐completion times. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 873–888.

 

Lengfelder, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2001). Reflective and reflexive action control in patients with frontal brain lesions. Neuropsychology, 15, 80–100.

 

Lippke, S., & Ziegelmann, J. P. (2002). Self‐regulation and exercise: A study on stages of change and successful ageing. Unpublished manuscript. Germany: Free University of Berlin.

 

Milne, S., Orbell, S., & Sheeran, P. (2002). Combining motivational and volitional interventions to promote exercise participation: Protection motivation theory and implementation intentions. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 163–184.

 

Milne, S., & Sheeran, P. (2002a, June). Combining motivational and volitional interventions to prevent testicular cancer. Testing the interaction between protection motivation theory and implementation intentions. Paper presented at the 13th general meeting of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology. San Sebastian, Spain.

 

Milne, S., & Sheeran, P. (2002b). Unpublished raw data. UK: University of Bath.

 

Milne, S., & Sheeran, P. (2002c, October). Making good implementation intentions: Comparing associative learning and prospective memory in remembering intentions. Paper presented at the 16th conference of the European Health Psychology Society. Lisbon, Portugal.

 

Murgraff, V., White, D., & Phillips, K. (1996). Moderating binge drinking: It is possible to change behaviour if you plan it in advance. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 6, 577–582.

 

Oettingen, G., Ho¨nig, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2000). Effective self‐regulation of goal attainment. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 705–732.

 

Orbell, S., Hodgkins, S., & Sheeran, P. (1997). Implementation intentions and the theory of planned behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 945–954.

 

Orbell, S., & Sheeran, P. (1999). Volitional strategies and the theory of planned behavior.Unpublished manuscript. UK: University of Sheffield.

 

Orbell, S., & Sheeran, P. (2000). Motivational and volitional processes in action initiation:A field study of the role of implementation intentions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,30, 780–797.

 

Prestwich, A., Lawton, R., & Conner, M. (2003a). Disguising the strength of implementation intentions: The effect of spontaneously arising plans. Unpublished manuscript. UK: University of Leeds.

 

Prestwich, A., Lawton, R., & Conner, M. (2003b). The use of implementation intentions and the decision balance sheet in promoting exercise behavior. Psychology and Health, 18,707–722.

 

Rise, J., Thompson, M., & Verplanken, B. (2003). Measuring implementation intentions in the context of the theory of planned behavior. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44, 87–95.  

 

Schaal, B. (1993). Impulskontrolle—Wie Vorsatze beherrschtes Handeln erleichtern.[Impulse control—How implementation intentions facilitate the control of behavior]. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Munich, Germany: Ludwig‐Maximilians‐Universita.

 

Sheeran, P., & Milne, S. (2003). Unpublished raw data. UK: University of Sheffield.

 

Sheeran, P., Milne, S., Webb, T. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2005b). Implementation intentions.In M. Conner and P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behavior: Research and practice with social cognition models (2nd ed.). Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

 

Sheeran, P., & Orbell, S. (1999). Implementation intentions and repeated behavior: Augmenting the predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 349–369.

Sheeran, P., & Orbell, S. (2000). Using implementation intentions to increase attendance for cervical cancer screening. Health Psychology, 19, 283–289.

 

Sheeran, P., & Silverman, M. (2003). Evaluation of three interventions to promote workplace health and safety: Evidence for the utility of implementation intentions. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 2153–2163.

 

Sheeran, P., & Webb, T. L. (2003). Implementation intentions versus ego‐training as strategies for preventing ego‐depletion. Unpublished manuscript. UK: University of Sheffield.

 

Sheeran, P., Webb, T. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2005c). The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 87–98.

 

Sniehotta, F. F., Scholtz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2002a). The effects of planning on initiation and maintenance of physical activity in cardiac rehabilitation patients. Unpublished research report. Germany: Free University Berlin.

 

Sniehotta, F. F., Scholtz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2002b). Implementation intentions and coping intentions. Unpublished research report. Germany: Free University Berlin.

 

Steadman, L., & Quine, L. (2000, August). Are implementation intentions useful for bridging the intention‐behavior gap in adhering to long‐term medication regimens? An attempt to replicate Sheeran and Orbell’s (1999) intervention to enhance adherence to daily vitamin C intake. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Division of Health Psychology annual conference, University of Kent. Canterbury, UK.

 

Steadman, L., & Quine, L. (2004). Encouraging young males to perform testicular self‐examination: A simple, but effective, implementation intentions interventions. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 479–487.

 

Stephens, A., & Conner, M. (1999, September). A smoking prevention intervention in adolescents. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Division of Health Psychology annual conference. University of Leeds.

 

Trotschel, R., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2004). Implementation intentions and the control of framingeVects in negotiations. Manuscript under review.

 

Verplanken, B., & Faes, S. (1999). Good intentions, bad habits, and effects of forming implementation intentions on healthy eating. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29,591–604.

 

Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2003). Can implementation intentions help to overcome ego‐depletion? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 279–286.

Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2004). Identifying good opportunities to act: Implementation intentions and cue discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 407–419.

 

Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2005). Integrating concepts from goal theories to understand the achievement of personal goals. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 69–96.

 

Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (in press a). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta‐analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin.

 

Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (in press b). How do implementation intentions promote goal attainment? Tests of component processes.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

 

Williams, S. (2003). Stand by your plan: A new approach to the planning fallacy. Unpublished doctoral thesis. UK: University of Sussex.

 

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